Flag of Azerbaijan
|Design||A horizontal tricolor of blue, red, and green, with a white crescent and an eight-pointed star centered on a red band |
In 1828, after the last Russo-Persian War, several Khanates of the Caucasus were annexed to the Russian Empire . When the Russian Empire collapsed, Russian Azerbaijan declared its independence and joined the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, together with Georgia and Armenia. The federation was dissolved on May 26, 1918, when Georgia declared its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Both Armenia and Azerbaijan declared their independence two days later, on May 28, 1918, as the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, respectively. After gaining independence, the blue-red-green tricolour was adopted by the government of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan on November 9, 1918.
During the Soviet period, Jahid Hilaloglu raised the tricolor over Baku's Maiden Tower in 1956 showing his defiance towards the system. Hilaloglu was ultimately sentenced to four years of imprisonment and his supporter Chingiz Abdullayev was institutionalized. On May 28, 1952 during the Republic Day celebrations in Germany, Mammed Amin Rasulzade raised the tricolor and asked for anyone who can be entrusted to take the flag back to Azerbaijan. Gulmirza Bagirov ultimately brought it to Azerbaijan in secret in the 1970s; this flag was hung over his house in Maştağa on January 20, 1990. During the late 1980s, unrest in Soviet Azerbaijan, the tricolor Azerbaijan Democratic Republic flag was used in demonstrations calling for independence. On November 17, 1990 on the first session of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, the 1918 Azerbaijani flag was adopted as the national flag of the autonomous state. The first constitution since independence was adopted on November 12, 1995 after a national vote; one of the articles which described the three-color flag of the republic. 
The blue symbolises Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, the red stands for progress, and the green represents Islam.  The crescent moon is an Islamic symbol, while the eight-pointed star represents the eight Turkic peoples of the world.