Flag of Kuwait
|Design||A horizontal triband of green, white and red; with a black trapezium based on the hoist side. |
Before 1961, the flag of Kuwait was red and/or white, like those of other Persian Gulf states at the time, with the field being red and words and/or charges being written in white. Until 1899, the flag consisted solely of a red field. From 1899 to 1915, the red field bore a white crescent and star and, also in white, the word "كويت" (Kuwait) styled so as to de-emphasize the word-initial K: From 1899 to 1909, the crescent-and-star symbol and the country's name were of equal height; between 1909 and 1915, the crescent and star predominated at the center, with the country's name reduced in size and relegated to the top fly-side corner. Between 1915 and 1956, the crescent and star were removed and the name was enlarged and returned to the center of the flag. Between 1956 and 1961, the crescent and star remained absent, the name was written in a different style placing greater emphasis on the word-initial K, the hoist side of the flag bore a wavy white bordure, and the Shahadah was written vertically and oriented so as to be read top-to-bottom. The present flag is in the Pan-Arab colours, but each colour is also significant in its own right. 
Black represents the defeat of the enemy, while red is the colour of blood on the Kuwaiti swords. White symbolizes purity, and green is for the fertile land.
The colours' meaning came from a poem by Safie Al-Deen Al-Hali: "White are our deeds. Black are our battles. Green are our lands. Red are our swords.".