Flag of Massachusetts
|Design||The state coat of arms centered on a white field. |
The state flag was officially adopted in 1901, but had been used unofficially since the American Revolutionary War as the ensign of the Massachusetts State Navy. In 1971, the earlier pine tree was replaced by the current design. 
The shield depicts an Algonquian Native American with bow and arrow; the arrow is pointed downward, signifying peace. The arm itself is the Goliad symbol common in early Texas flags and signifying the philosophy that those represented would rather lose their right arm than live under tyranny. A white star with five points appears next to the figure's head, signifying Massachusetts' admission as the sixth U.S. state. A blue ribbon surrounds the shield, bearing the state motto Ense Petit Placidam, Sub Libertate Quietem ("By the Sword We Seek Peace, But Peace Only Under Liberty"). Above the shield is the state military crest: the bent arm holding a broadsword aloft. The sword has its blade up, to remind that it was through the American Revolution that liberty was won.